small capacity incinerators

8.     The average dioxin and furan concentration in the emissions should not exceed 80ng/m3 total dioxins and furans if measured for a period of 6 to 16 hours.

2.     Be paired with secondary burner/s burning gas or low sulphur liquid gas or some other suitable fuel.

3.     Ensure secondary air supply is controlled efficiently.
Manganese                                  Mn
2.     If the minimum combustion temperatures aren’t maintained.
Secondary Combustion Chamber.
4.     The incinerator should not be overcharged.
Sulphur dioxide                           S02

7.     A 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for each principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) in the waste feed where:

DRE = [(Win – Wout)/Win]*100
A gas flow meter/recorder
Acid Gas Scrubbers
3.     Have light if 24hrs operation
2.     Have a solid floor.
Hydrochloric                                HCL
Particulate Scrubbers
2.      Staff must be provided with proper protective equipment such as, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, goggles, gloves.

3.      Caution and Warning signs must be provided.
Nickel                                           Ni
Beryllium                                    Be
21 – OM

Where:    Es    = Calculated emission concentration at the standard percentage oxygen concentration
Where: Win = mass feed rate of the POHC from the waste stream fed to incinerator, and
3.     The inclusion of dilution air after combustion to be able to reach the requirement of these guidelines is unacceptable.

4.     The minimum exit rate should be 10 m/s and at least two times the surrounding wind speed (Efflux velocity = wind speed x 2) whichever is higher to ensure no down washing of leaving gases.

5.     Point for the measurement of emissions shall be provided.

7    Instrumentation    Instrument for discovering the interior wall temperature rather than burner flame temperature has to be provided for both primary and secondary chambers.

2.     An audible and visible alarm must be installed to warn the operator when the secondary temperature drops to below the required temperature.

3.     Besides the above the following instruments may also be required.
% CO2 + CO

2.     The temperature of the primary chamber shall be 800 ± 50o C

3.     The secondary chamber  gas residence time shall be at least 1 (one) second at 1050 ± 50o C, with 3% Oxygen in the stack gas.

4    Opacity of the smoke must not exceed 20% Viewed from 50 meters with naked eyes
Os    = Regular oxygen concentration
The chimney should have a minimum height of 10 meters above ground level and clear the maximum point of the building by not less than 3 meters for all roofs. The topography and height of adjacent buildings within 50 meters radius should be taken into account.

2.     If possible the chimney should be visible to the operator from the feeding area.
OM    = measured oxygen concentration

10    Operation    1.     Materials destined for incineration should be of known origin and makeup and have to be just incinerated in a furnace that is registered for the particular sort of waste.

2.     A record must be kept of the quantity, type and origin of the waste to be incinerated.
5.     Ensure residence time isn’t less than two (2) seconds.
3.     Whenever the previous charge has not been fully combusted in the case of batch feeding.

4.     Until such time as the inclusion of more waste won’t cause the layout parameters of the incinerator to be exceeded.

3    Main Combustion Chamber    The main combustion chamber must:

1.     Be accepted as the main combustion zone.
5.      There should be no smoking or eating on the website.

12    Health & Safety (Protective Gear)    1.     Staff managing waste must be well trained on safe handling of hazardous wastes
Antimony                                    Sb
All pollutant concentrations have to be expressed at Oo C and 1.013 x 10 5 N/m2, dry gas and 11% oxygen correction.

Oxygen correction is computed as:

Es =     21 — Os    x EM
6.     Ensure the gas temperature as measured against the inner wall in the secondary chamber & not in the fire zone, is less than 1100oC. Verify the oxygen content of the emitted gases is less than 11%.
3.     The incinerator has to be preheated to working temperature before charging any waste.
Copper                                        Cu
2    Feeding And Charging    Controlled hygienic, mechanical or automatic feeding methods must be used which won’t affect the air temperature in the primary and secondary chambers of the incinerator negatively.

No waste is to be fed to the incinerator:

1.     Until the minimum temperatures have been reached.

1    Fundamental Plant Design    An approved plant has to have four different sections that demonstrate three principles of Turbulence, Residence Time and Temperature are inbuilt in the plant layout .The regulated sections may include but not limited to:

Overall plant layout.
4.     Ensure minimal exit temperature is not less than 850oC

4    Secondary Combustion Chamber (Afterburner).     The secondary combustion chamber must:

4.      Fire fighting equipment must be provided
Silver                                          Ag
Thallium                                     Tl

Chromium                                  Cr
Electrostatic precipitators
5.     All the emission to the air other than steam or water vapour has to be odourless and free of mist, fume and droplets.

6.     The Authority may require that the certificate holder have tests carried out by an accredited institution to determine stack and/or ground level concentrations of the following substances.

Cadmium and compounds as     Cd
4.     Ensure flame contact with gases is achieved.
The Combustion efficiency is computed as follows;

C.E=% CO2           x 100
Hydrofluoric acid                         HF
Lead                                            Pb
8.     Ensure both main and the combustion temperatures are maintained until all waste was fully combusted

5    Particulate Removers    A mechanical particulate collector has to be incorporated after secondary combustion chamber for removal of particulate pollutants entrained in the flue gas stream. The particulate collectors may include any of the following or a combination thereof:

Cyclone separator
2.     Be equipped with a burner/s burning gas/fuel or low sulphur liquid fuels. Other combustion methods will be judged on merits.

3.     Ensure main air supply is controlled economically
5.     The incinerator must be in good working order at all times and should not be used if any component fails. Any malfunction should be recorded in a log book and reported to the appropriate authority.

6.     The incinerator operator and all appropriate staff must be trained to the satisfaction of the appropriate control authority.

11    Housekeeping    The website where the incinerator is built must:

1.     Have running water.
Any other instrument or measurement that may be considered necessary

8    Location / Siting    1.     Must be sited in accordance with the applicable local municipal authority planning scheme, the topography of the Region and be compatible with assumptions in the area,

2.     Must be placed in a suitably ventilated room. Combustion efficiency:

Combustion efficiency (CE) shall be at least 99.00%

12    Health & Safety (Protective Gear)    1.    Staff handling waste must be well trained on safe handling of hazardous wastes
2.     Staff must be provided with appropriate  protective gear such as, gas mask, aprons, gumboots, helmets, gloves, goggles.

3.     Caution and Warning signs must be provided.
4.     Fire fighting equipment must be provided
5.     There should be no smoking or eating on the site.

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